Advanced Biomaterials and Devices in Medicine
December 2014, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 74-87
Bioactive bone substitution materials
S. Chernousova, M. Epple*
Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, 45117 Germany
* Corresponding author: Prof. Dr. Matthias Epple, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The replacement of lost bone is an old, but nevertheless unsolved clinical problem. Different approaches are known, ranging from bone transplants to fully synthetic biomaterials. In between are biomaterial–cell constructs where a patient’s cells are harvested and then expanded in a bioreactor to a reimplantable device. Modern approaches like rapid prototyping, tissue engineering and cell printing open new horizons, but regulatory issues and the costs for the health system represent obstacles for a widespread clinical use. More traditional approaches involve classical biomaterials like calcium phosphate, biodegradable polymers, and porous metals. They do not possess the same properties as natural bone, but they are approved and routinely applied in the clinical practice. Their chemical functionalization may enhance their biological activity and promote bone ongrowth and ingrowth.
Keywords: bone, polymers, ceramics, bone substitution, trauma surgery, bioactivity, tissue engineering, calcium phosphate, polylactide, metals